Criminal Law

Facing criminal law charges is a time of great uncertainty. Will you be arrested? Will you go to jail? Is this going to effect the rest of your life? Consulting with an experienced attorney, such as Sasha Shulman with Shulman Law, will help answer all of your questions and put your mind at ease.

There are many types of cases, and no two cases are alike. For this reason, consulting with an attorney EARLY, as soon as you’re aware of your legal predicament, will maximize the opportunity to assist you. This website is intended to provide general information about the criminal case process, and is not legal advice.

Criminal Investigation

There are times when a case is initiated through an investigation. Maybe the officers do not have enough evidence or are in the process of collecting evidence. You may be contacted to give a statement. Before you have any contact with law enforcement, contact an attorney. You need to discuss the benefits and pitfalls of providing evidence to law enforcement, especially by way of a statement.

Once the officers have completed the investigation, the case may be closed without an arrest, it may be referred to the Office of the State Attorney, or it may result in an arrest warrant being issued for your arrest. It is essential to contact an attorney as soon as you know you are under investigation, as an experienced and knowledgable attorney can potentially assist with the charges not being filed, or lesser charges being filed.

After the case results in an arrest, it will progress as any other case.

Arrest

More often than not, there is no forewarning when an arrest is going to occur. The majority of criminal cases begin with an arrest. An arrest is based on probable cause – the legal standard for police officers to make an arrest. Probable cause cannot be a hunch, or guess work, or a belief. There must be evidence to back up the allegations in order for you to be arrested.

During an arrest, no matter how upset, frightened or mad you might be, do not speak with the officers other than to provide biographical information (your name, date of birth, etc.). The officers will likely read your Miranda Rights. Your Miranda Rights are a set of rights you MUST be informed of before giving a statement. Many people who are arrested think their case can be thrown out because their Miranda Rights weren’t read – this is not accurate. Except in very specific scenarios, a failure to receive your Miranda Rights will affect the statement you gave, and not the arrest.

What are your Miranda Rights?

  1. You have the right to remain silent
  2. Anything you say can be used against you in a court of law
  3. You have the right to an attorney before and during questioning
  4. If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you
  5. You have the right to stop questioning and refuse to answer further questions at any time

Statements are most often taken at the police station, and are recorded. Keep in mind, that even if the officer does not have a recorder that you can see, that the rooms are wired and recorded for video and sound. If you are left alone in a room, do NOT make phone calls, do NOT talk to yourself, and do NOT speak with any co-arrestees, co-defendants, parents, significant others, etc. Even if no officer is in the room, you are still being watched and monitored.

Booking

Booking is the process when biographical information is taken from you. Your information will be entered into a central database, and you will be photographed and fingerprinted. At this point, if you have any other cases pending anywhere, the law enforcement agency will likely be made aware. You will also be searched, your personal items will be inventoried (collected) by the officers, and your items will be placed in property. Property is a holding area for items that will be returned to you upon your release, unless they are illegal in nature.

Make sure that you only discuss the necessary biographical information with the officers during booking and do not talk about your case. Even statements made, whether responding to a question or said spontaneously, can be used against you in court under the right circumstances.

While in jail, whether during booking, waiting for court, or at any point during the process, know that your phone calls are recorded! Anything you say, whether you try to use a three-way call or use a friend’s account, is recorded. Be careful with what you say. Also, your letters and postcards are monitored. Any statement in a letter or a call can be used against you! Finally, some jails have the capability to record visitation. Again, be careful what you say during visitation as it can be used against you. Any conversations or meetings with your attorney are confidential and should not be recorded or monitored.

Bond and First Appearance

It is required by law that you appear before a judge within 24 hours of your arrest. This is commonly referred to as magistrates or first appearance. Most jurisdictions will have you appear before the judge via closed circuit television – in other words, you will most likely not physically appear before a judge. You will be informed of your charges and a bond will be set. You are permitted to have a private attorney appear with you for this hearing, or a public defender will be present. There is no requirement for you to discuss your case, the facts, or the circumstances. Your statement and actions are recorded during first appearances and can be used against you.

The judge has the option of setting a monetary bond (i.e. $1,500 bond), releasing you with pretrial release conditions, or holding you without a bond. A judge is also permitted to release you on a monetary bond AND put pretrial release conditions in place. For instance, in a domestic violence case, the judge may order you to not return to your residence, to not contact the victim, to undergo drug testing, and/or undergo mental health counseling. It is very important to know and understand any pretrial release conditions – a violation of a condition means a violation of your bond, which means that you can be held without bond for the pendency of your case!

There are certain offenses where the judge cannot give you a bond, and nearly all violations of probation will allow the judge to hold you without a bond. Do not plead your case in first appearance court. Contact an attorney to set a formal bond hearing before your assigned judge. Many times, a full hearing before your assigned judge will work to your benefit when your attorney has time to speak with witnesses and prepare.

Arraignment

The date for your arraignment is set by the clerk of court. You will receive paperwork in the mail with the date; however, be sure to check the online clerk’s system to make sure you don’t miss this first court date. Typically, the arraignment will take place in front of your assigned judge, and will be handled by your assigned prosecutor. At arraignment, the judge will inform you of what charges are formally filed, will ask “how do you plea?”, and will make sure you have representation. It is important to hire an attorney BEFORE arraignment so if there are any time-sensitive issues, they can be addressed early on. One benefit of hiring an attorney prior to arraignment is that your attorney can enter a plea, via paperwork, on your behalf. Most jurisdictions will then waive your appearance for the arraignment. Being proactive with hiring an attorney may mean less court appearances for you! Following arraignment, the clerk will provide the next court date. Typically, the court date are set 1-2 months apart to allow you and your attorney time to prepare.

Preparation Process (Discovery)

You may hear the term “discovery.” This term refers to the process of preparation for trial. Discovery can include reviewing reports, taking depositions, interviewing defense witnesses, hiring experts and more. It is essential to stay in touch with your attorney throughout the discovery process, as you will be able to review the police reports and any evidence that is available (for instance, videos, photographs, etc.). Throughout the discovery process, there will be periodic court dates so the judge can keep track of the status. It is also during this time that you and your attorney will discuss the options of going to trial or negotiating a plea bargain.

Trial

Trial is the process where a jury of your peers is chosen to hear your case. For the majority of cases, the jury has six members. For capital cases, the jury is comprised of 12 people. During the trial, the prosecution has the burden of proving beyond a reasonable doubt that you are guilty. It is NOT your obligation to prove anything. However, you will want to discuss with your attorney whether it is advisable to testify and whether any witnesses will be/should be called on your behalf. Keep in mind that even the closest of family members might not be a good witness. Once the jury hears the prosecution’s presentation of evidence, the defense decides whether to present any evidence. Then, both sides present a final, closing argument before the jury deliberates. In Florida, the jury must unanimously vote whether you are guilty, not guilty, or guilty of a lesser charge. There is no time limit for deliberations.

Drug Cases

Arrests or investigations involving drugs are often complex and have life-long implications. Did you know that a conviction can lead to the suspension of your driver’s license? You need knowledgeable, aggressive representation in these matters, as the penalties are steep.

An arrest involving drugs can be for simple possession, felony possession, cultivating, manufacturing, distribution, or trafficking. There are significant sentencing penalties when it comes to drug offenses, including minimum mandatory sentences when it comes to trafficking. It is important to hire an attorney as soon as you are arrested or learn that you are under investigation for drug cases. The investigations can range from a straightforward case, such as a search following a traffic stop. Or, they can involve search warrants, confidential informants, and surveillance. Hiring an attorney knowledgeable in search and seizure law, such as Shulman Law, can provide a great advantage when litigating drug cases.

It is important to be aware that there has been a crackdown on prescription pill cases. Law enforcement closely watches the sale and distribution of prescription pills, as it is a crime for you to sell your prescription pills. However, it is NOT a crime for you to possess your lawfully prescribed medications. If you have been arrested for a prescription pill case, contact Shulman Law immediately to discuss your options!

Whether you’ve been arrested for marijuana (cannabis), cocaine, crack cocaine, MDMA (Molly), LSD, PCP, ecstasy, amphetamines, methamphetamine, heroin, K2 (spice), Opioids (Vicodin, hydrocodone, oxycontin, morphine, codeine), anabolic steroids, or other drugs, the stakes are high. Contact Shulman Law to discuss your options.

Domestic Violence Cases

Domestic violence cases can range from a second-degree misdemeanor to a capital felony. These cases are often emotionally complex and filled with pitfalls where if you were arrested, you could be subject to additional charges by not following the rules of the court. Immediately following an arrest, hire an attorney to walk you through your case and to explain the orders of the court to make sure that you can stay free on bond while your case is pending.

The crimes that fall under domestic violence are assault, battery, violation of an injunction, stalking, felony battery, aggravated battery, aggravated battery on a pregnant woman, strangulation, false imprisonment, various sex crimes, manslaughter, and even murder. Most jurisdictions have created courtrooms specifically designed to handle domestic violence cases, with prosecutors that are dedicated to just those types of cases.

To defend against domestic violence charges, it is imperative to hire an attorney early on. There may be evidence that needs to be collected at the onset of the case (such as voicemail, text messages, photographs of injuries or damage, social media messages). The longer you wait, the more information could disappear that could be helpful to your case.

Many times during a domestic case, there is also a RESTRAINING ORDER that needs to be addressed. There is a separate judge and courtroom where restraining orders, also known as injunction cases are heard. At Shulman Law, you can rely on years of experience in handling domestic cases and restraining order cases. Did you know that if you speak during a restraining order hearing, that the transcript or recording could be used against you in a criminal trial? This is one of the many reasons you need a competent attorney standing by your side.

A violation of a restraining order can lead to jail time and to fines. A violation of a “no contact order,” imposed by the domestic violence judge, can also lead to jail time and fines. And, one of the most common ways you can violate either a restraining order or a no contact order is by contacting the victim. Here, it is essential to NOT make contact with the victim. Do not call. Do not text. Do not agree to meet up for coffee. Even if the victim wants to reconcile, do not respond until the court has addressed your case. The only person who will end up with new charges is YOU! Should a victim reach out to you while your domestic violence case is pending, contact your attorney immediately to preserve the evidence.

Firearms Cases

Cases involving firearms can range in penalty from misdemeanor to capital felony. When a firearm is possessed during the commission of a felony, the prosecutor’s office has the option to charge you with “10-20-life.” This is a way that the prosecutor can sentence you to a minimum mandatory sentence. For instance, if you commit an aggravated battery by hitting someone with a bat, the maximum is 15 years in prison. However, if you commit an aggravated battery with a firearm, the prosecutor can enhance that sentence, or make it greater, by using 10-20-life. Not only would the maximum be increased to 30 years, but depending on how the gun was used, you could also be facing a minimum mandatory.

It is essential for you to hire an attorney who is familiar with the 10-20-life statute in defending your case. Often, attorneys aren’t aware of the true penalties you face, or how the charges can be reduced based on how the prosecutor files the case. Whether you are charged with possession of a firearm by a convicted felon, possession of ammunition by a convicted felon, carrying a concealed firearm, or any felony involving a firearm, contact Shulman Law immediately following arrest to discuss your options.

Violent Crimes

Violent Crimes is a wide category that can include battery, aggravated battery, gun charges, domestic violence, sexual assault, manslaughter, murder, and many more. Make sure to hire an attorney that has handled them all. With Shulman Law, you get over a decade of experience, including years that were dedicated to domestic violence cases, to career criminal cases, and to homicides. Before you hire an attorney, be sure to ask – have you handled this type of case before? How about cases that are more serious than this case? With experience comes success and knowledge.

Each case involving a violent crime is unique. Contact Shulman Law after an arrest for a consultation. Hiring Shulman Law means receiving good communication, return phone calls, and discussion of possible defenses. It means trusting your liberty to someone with the knowledge and experience…and above all else, the success….that you need in handling your criminal case.

Many times, violent crimes cases involve complex witness testimony – such as DNA, crime scene experts, blood spatter experts, and more. Hiring an attorney who understands the benefit of utilizing defense experts and how to attack the prosecution’s experts, is essential to success. Contact Shulman Law to talk with an attorney who is well-acquainted with these areas of law, and how to use them to your benefit.

Community Control and Probation Violation

A huge percentage of criminal cases are resolved through plea negotiations. Quite often, a plea will include a term of community control or probation. Should you violate either, the consequences can be significant. Rather than have the right to a jury trial, a violation of community control or probation is tried before the judge. The rules of evidence are different. There is much more leeway in what evidence the court can hear in a violation than in a trial, making it easy for prosecutors to prove the violation.

Why is it important to have aggressive representation at a violation hearing? In Florida, if you violate community control or probation, you’re facing the same maximum that you would have faced on the original charge. A dirty urine test could land you a 30-year sentence. The stakes are high. And, there is always the option to have your probation reinstated – but did you know that every violation of community control or probation increases your scoresheet? A scoresheet, used in every felony in Florida, is a worksheet for the court that documents your prior history, your current charges, and the number of violations you’ve had. Every violation racks up significant points for future violations!

Make sure you hire a knowledgeable attorney, such as Shulman Law, to represent you at a violation of probation or community control hearing. There are laws that have been passed, under the Anti-Murder Act, that impact whether you can receive a bond and whether the court can reinstate you. If your attorney doesn’t know what a “danger hearing” is, then they don’t know the applicable law! Contact Shulman law to discuss your options, and determine the best way to approach your case.

Sealing and Expunging

There are a lot of similarities with sealing and expunging your record. However, hiring an attorney well-versed in this area can save a lot of time and money. The number one difference between the ability to have a case sealed or expunged is what the result was of your case.

You can only expunge a case that was not filed, dropped by the prosecutor, or dismissed by the court. You can seal a case if you received a withholding of adjudication (that you were not formally convicted). And, there are a number of types of crimes that are ineligible to be sealed (such as domestic violence).

Do not confuse having your record sealed or expunged with having your rights restored if you are a convicted felon. That is a completely different process, for different reason, with different results. Before attempting to seal or expunge your record, contact Shulman Law to assist you with the process. If you make a mistake or incorrectly apply, the wait can be substantial. At the moment, the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (who oversees this process) is running behind by at least four months. That means a properly filed application can sit waiting for FOUR MONTHS for review. Contact Shulman Law to make sure you application is done the correct way, or you could be waiting for over a year to get the results you need.

At Shulman Law, you are provided aggressive and knowledgeable representation in all criminal matters, in the tri-county area: Palm Beach, Broward, and Miami-Dade. Having more than a decade of experience as a prosecutor before handling criminal defense matters, you will have top notch representation in Assault and Battery, Aggravated Battery, Arson, Bribery, Burglary, Capital Offenses, Criminal Conspiracy, Criminal Defense, Domestic Violence, Drug Crimes, Fraud, Investigations, all Prosecutions, Driver’s License Suspension, Driving while Intoxicated, DUI/DWI, Sealing and Expungements, Extortion, Extradition, Felonies, Forensic DNA cases, Forgery, Grand Jury Practice, Gun Charges, Hit and Run, Homicide, Manslaughter, Misdemeanors, Murder, Parole and Probation, Search and Seizure, Sex Crimes, Sexual Assault, Shoplifting, Stalking, Ten-Twenty-Life cases, Theft, Traffic Violations, Trafficking, Vehicular Homicide, Victim’s Rights, and Weapons Charges.